Clin Chem Lab Med. 2023 Sep 21. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2023-0626. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Antibody response on polysaccharide- and protein-based vaccines is useful to test B cell functionality. As only few studies have explored the value of studying immune response to both vaccines, we evaluated the clinical value of anti-polysaccharide and anti-protein Luminex-based multiplex assays in context of primary immunodeficiency (PID) diagnosis.
METHODS: A 10-plex Luminex-based assay detecting antibodies to ten pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnPS) serotypes [present in unconjugated Pneumovax, not in 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV)] and a 5-plex assay detecting antibodies to five protein antigens (present in DTap/Tdap) were clinically validated in healthy individuals (n=99) and in retrospective (n=399) and prospective (n=108) patient cohorts. Clinical features of individuals with impaired response to PnPS and/or proteins were compared to those with normal response.
RESULTS: Antigen-specific antibody thresholds were determined in healthy individuals. Individuals with impaired anti-PnPS responses and deficient immunoglobulin levels suffered more from autoimmune diseases and had lower B cell levels compared to individuals with impaired anti-PnPS response with normal immunoglobulin levels. Individuals with combined impaired response to PnPS and proteins showed more severe clinical manifestations compared to individuals with isolated impaired response to PnPS or proteins. Eight of the 11 individuals with severely impaired responses to both PnPS and proteins had common variable immunodeficiency. Evaluation of the anti-PnPS response to four serotypes not contained in 20-valent PCV was comparable to evaluation to ten serotypes not contained in 13-valent PCV.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiplexed assessment of anti-PnPS and anti-protein responses combined with immunoglobulin quantification provides useful clinical information to support PID diagnosis.
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